Pipe Flow Module
Pipe Flow Module
Model Transport Phenomena and Acoustics in Pipe Systems with the Pipe Flow Module
Consider All Process Variables with Reduced Computational Resources
The Pipe Flow Module is used for simulations of fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, hydraulic transients, and acoustics in pipe and channel networks. It can be easily integrated with any of the other modules in the COMSOL® Product Suite for modeling the effects piping has on larger entities, such as cooling pipes in engine blocks or feeding and product channels connected to vessels. This allows for the conservation of computational resources in your overall modeling of processes that consist of piping networks, while still allowing you to consider a full description of your process variables within these networks. Pipe flow simulations provide the velocity, pressure, material concentrations, and temperature distributions along pipes and channels, while it can also simulate acoustic wave propagation and the water hammer effect.
Ideal for Modeling Incompressible Fluid Flow Regimes
The Pipe Flow Module is suitable for modeling incompressible flow in pipes and channels whose lengths are large enough that flow can be considered fully developed. With this assumption it uses edge elements, solving for the tangential cross-section averaged velocity along the edges, to avoid meshing the cross section of the pipe with a full 3D mesh. This means that the modeled variables are averaged in the pipe's cross sections and vary only along the length of the pipe. Built-in expressions for Darcy friction factors cover the entire flow regime including laminar and turbulent flow, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different cross-sectional shapes or geometries, and a wide range of relative surface roughness values. These can be varied according to their position in the network, or directly related to the variables you are modeling.
Friction is not the only contribution to pressure loss in pipe networks. The Pipe Flow Module also considers the effects of bends, contractions, expansions, T-junctions, and valves that are computed through an extensive library of industry standard loss coefficients, while pumps are also available as flow-inducing devices. As with any physics interface in the COMSOL Product Suite, you can freely manipulate the underlying equations, add your own source or sink terms, and express physical property as functions of any model variable. COMSOL Multiphysics® also allows you to bring in data to describe a certain material property or process parameter, as well as subroutines written in MATLAB®.
Coupling Pipe Flow to Other Physics and Applications
The physics in the Pipe Flow Module describe the conservation of momentum, energy, and mass in the fluids inside a pipe or channel system. These systems can easily be coupled to other systems that cannot be described using the approximative methods in the Pipe Flow Module, but require a full description of the system's physics in 2D or 3D. The Pipe Flow Module allows the mapping of data from edges, to surfaces, and to volumes, and vice versa. This means that the flow or heat transfer in a pipe network can be coupled to that occurring in, for example, a fully-meshed 3D vessel, and solved simultaneously. Furthermore, as with all physics-based products in the COMSOL Product Suite, this coupling can occur between different physics formulations, so that a property like thermal stress can be just as easily solved, for example thermal stresses in an engine block equipped with cooling channels.
The Pipe Flow Module features specific tailor-made physics interfaces for modeling heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. The pipe network can be embedded in, for example, a 3D solid domain. In the case of heat transfer, the module computes the energy balance in your pipe systems including the contributions from the interaction with the 3D domain, which are expressed as sources or sinks in the pipe equations. This is automatically done under the hood by activating the interaction with 2D or 3D solid material in the graphical user interface (GUI), where you can also select from the available correlations for forced and natural convection to the surrounding environment, pipe materials, and pipe wall thicknesses that are included with the Pipe Flow Module. The material transport-based physics interfaces solve a mass balance within the pipe system and, while being coupled to the description of the pipe flow, also consider diffusion, convection, dispersion, and chemical reactions.
Physics for Water Hammer Analysis and Pipe Acoustics
The Pipe Flow Module models compressible flow brought about by rapid hydraulic transients, through taking the elastic properties of both the fluid and high wall into account. These effects can occur through the rapid closing of the valve, and are known as the water hammer effect.
The propagation of acoustic waves along flexible pipes is also a contributing factor to the design, planning, and building of these networks. When combined with the Acoustics Module, the Pipe Flow Module is able to perform acoustics analyses in both the frequency and time domains. Once again, the physics that are solved for in the Pipe Flow Module can be seamlessly coupled to any other physics within the pipe network, and any physics in the system surrounding the network.
Pipe Flow Simulations Great for Many Types of Industries
The Pipe Flow Module is appropriate for modeling all types of pipe and channel networks where flow, mass and heat transfer, and acoustic waves travel. This includes the piping systems of chemical and process industry plants, power stations, refineries, petroleum and water in pipelines, ventilation systems, and cooling systems in engines and turbines. Furthermore, it is a great addition to the modeling that you perform using COMSOL Multiphysics and its suite of add-on products. This includes optimizing intricate and integrated cooling systems in turbines, molds, casts and heat exchangers, planning ventilation systems in buildings, and designing geothermal heating systems.
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Pipe Flow Module
- Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes and channel networks
- Darcy friction factors for all flow regimes, different cross-sectional geometries, and for different surface roughness
- Extensive library of industry standard loss coefficients for bends, contractions, expansions, T-junctions, and valves
- Flow-inducing coefficients for pumps
- Nonisothermal flow coupled to heat transfer for all flow regimes
- Heat transfer within pipe flow and to the surrounding environment, including conduction through pipe walls, solids, and free and forced convection in the surrounding volume
- Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
- Material transport through diffusion, dispersion, convection, and chemical reaction
- Reacting Flow that couples material transport directly to pipe flow
- Water Hammer effects caused by rapid hydraulic transients in pipe networks
- Pipe acoustics in the frequency and time domains *
* Requires the Acoustics Module.
- Chemical process simulations
- Chemical reactions in pipes
- Cooling systems
- Geothermal systems
- Heat exchangers and cooling flanges
- Heat transfer in pipes
- Mass transfer in pipes
- Nonisothermal pipe flow
- Oil refinery pipe systems
- Pipe acoustics
- Pipe flow
- Pipe networks in chemical plants
- Water and oil pipelines
- Water hammer equations
Simulation Enables the Next Generation of Power Transformers and Shunt Reactors
L. Jovelli Siemens, Brazil
From power generation to its distribution to end users, power transformers and shunt reactors are used throughout the electrical grid for voltage conversion and to absorb reactive power. At Siemens Brazil in Jundiai, São Paulo, designers are using multiphysics simulation to verify that grid-integrated transformers and shunt reactors can handle ...
Cooling of an Injection Mold
This model shows how you can use the Non-Isothermal Pipe Flow interface together with the Heat Transfer in Solids interface to model the cooling of a injection molded polyurethane part for a car steering wheel. The equations describing the cooling channels are fully coupled to the heat transfer equations of the mold and the polyurethane part.
Probe Tube Microphone
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Organ Pipe Design
The Organ Pipe Designer allows you to study the design of an organ pipe and then play the sound and pitch of the changed design in a user-friendly app. The pipe sound includes the effects of different harmonics with different amplitudes. The organ pipe is modeled using the Pipe Acoustics, Frequency Domain interface in COMSOL Multiphysics. The ...
Geothermal Heating from a Pond Loop
Ponds and lakes can serve as thermal reservoirs in geothermal heating applications. In this example, fluid circulates underwater through polyethylene piping in a closed system. The pipes are coiled in a slinky shape and grouped onto sleds. The Non-isothermal Pipe Flow interface sets up and solves the equations for the temperature and fluid flow ...
Insulation of a Pipeline Section
As oil flows through a pipeline section heat is released due to the work of internal friction forces in the fluid. With good insulation of the pipeline, this generated heat can be used to avoid preheating of the oil, despite the fact that it is to be transported in a cold environment over long distances. This model uses the Non-isothermal Pipe ...
This tutorial model illustrates how to calculate the pressure drop and initial flow rate in a pipe system connected to water tank. The Pipe Flow interface contains ready to use friction models accounting for the surface roughness of pipes as well as pressure losses in bends and valves.
Convective Flow in a Heat Exchanger Plate
This example models flow in a microchannel heat exchanger by coupling a Laminar Flow interface in 3D to a Pipe Flow interface. By the use of the Pipe Flow interface to model the flow in the microchannels the problem size is significantly reduced. This model showcases the Pipe Connection feature that automatically connects a 3D and and Pipe Flow ...
When a valve is closed rapidly in a pipe network it gives rise to a hydraulic transient known as a water hammer. The propagation of these hydraulic transients can in extreme cases cause failures of pipe systems caused by overpressures. This is a model of a simple verification pipe system consisting of a reservoir, a pipe, and a valve. The valve ...
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