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Martin Beckmann-Kluge & Fabio Ferrero
BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing, Berlin, Germany
BAM German Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing in Berlin promotes industrial development by providing research and consultation on materials technology and chemical engineering. Their recent work has been in analyzing the process by which highly flammable TFE gas is converted into a solid called PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or the non-stick coating commonly known as Teflon. ...
APEI, AR, USA
Power electronics appear in many everyday products, including smartphones, electronic car parts, and household objects. Such devices require controlled temperature ranges, switching frequencies, and voltage levels to operate smoothly and reliably. For harsh environments, such as the depths below the earth’s surface where oil is drilled, there is an increasing need to develop electronic systems ...
O. Craciun, and colleagues
When a tree branch touches overhead cables and causes a momentary short circuit, your lights may flicker. A device called a recloser ensures that power to your home is not cut off for a longer period. ABB AG, a leading manufacturer in power technology, is working towards designing a more reliable recloser. One objective in this design process was to optimize the size of the permanent magnet ...
Derek Bassett and Michael Carcasi
Tokyo Electron America
Chip manufacturers have been adhering to Moore’s law, a law stating that the number of transistors that can be economically placed on an integrated circuit doubles every year, since 1965. As the number of transistors increases, however, the process of manufacturing integrated circuit, called photolithography, becomes more difficult. Each device requires approximately 200 cleaning and ...
A 100-Fold Improvement in Lithography Resolution Realized with a 150-Year-Old “Perfect Imaging” System
Juan Carlos Miñano and Dejan Grabovičkić
Cedint Polytechnic University of Madrid
The idea of "perfect imaging", that is a resolution less than the wavelength of light producing the image, was first proposed in the mid-19th century by famed Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. For the next 150 years, it was widely believed that such was impossible due to the fact that light diffracts around points that are the same size or smaller in wavelength. Then, in 2009, Ulf ...
Jean-Louis Gelet and Antoine Gerlaud
Large electrical systems carrying high currents could pose a danger if any of their components, such as fuses and bus bars, fail. In order to increase safety and improve manufacturing, it is necessary to understand the failure mechanisms of those components. One of those components, a bus bar, is made up of a single piece of conducting metal that replaces individual, thick cables when conducting ...
Aulis Tuominen and Mika Maaspuro
University of Turku
Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Hella Lighting Finland Oy
Helvar Oy Ab
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer many benefits over incandescent lighting, such as long life spans and high luminous efficiency, and they are environmentally friendly. One of the drawbacks, however, is that LEDs need to operate at the lowest possible temperatures and this must be carefully regulated. Researchers at Business and Innovation Development Technology at the University of Turku in ...
Tommi Paananen, David Geibel, Bill Teising, Mårten Almkvist, Jon Brasher, Josh Elder, Bob Elick and Chris Whitten
Consumers of power rely on fairly stable voltages. Transformers contain tap changers which vary the ratio of secondary to primary turns by switching the point at which either the input or output circuits are connected. Changing this ratio enables stepped voltage regulation of the output. As the world moves toward the modernized smart grid, the tap changer’s design must be altered to make it ...
Sharp Laboratories of Europe, UK
There are several kinds of technology that designers at Sharp Laboratories of Europe work to create. From LED lighting, displays, and microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology, to complex energy systems used in various devices, Sharp needed a new approach to finding the best designs. COMSOL Multiphysics and its add-on products provided the versatility to augment Sharp's research and development in ...
F. De Vita, S. Di Marco, F. Costa and P. Turchi
Stealth airplanes and ships avoid radar detection by optimizing the shape of surfaces to reflect away from the radar source or absorb its energy. Yet, if a ship or aircraft’s antenna for communication purposes is to operate properly, it cannot be completely covered up. This makes it one of the remaining components with a large radar cross section and can essentially destroy the overall system’s ...