The Application Gallery features COMSOL Multiphysics® tutorial and demo app files pertinent to the electrical, structural, acoustics, fluid, heat, and chemical disciplines. You can use these examples as a starting point for your own simulation work by downloading the tutorial model or demo app file and its accompanying instructions.

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Heat Transfer Modulex

Nonisothermal Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube

This verification model of nonisothermal laminar flow through a circular tube compares the heat transfer coefficient obtained from simulation with theoretical values based on Nusselt number correlation functions that can be found in the literature. Read More


Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, is a process for drying heat-sensitive substances such as foods, blood plasma, and antibiotics. The wet substance is frozen and then, through sublimation, ice (or some other frozen solvent) is removed in the presence of a high vacuum. This example ... Read More

LED Bulb Cooling

This model describes the three heat transfer modes: conduction, convection, and radiation, combined with nonisothermal flow in a realistic geometry representing a light bulb and the surrounding air. The LED chips dissipate heat. The model computes the equilibrium temperature induced by ... Read More

Dynamic Wall Heat Exchanger

The heat exchanger in this tutorial model contains a dynamic wall with an oscillating wave shape. The deformation induces mixing in the fluid and reduces the formation of thermal boundary layers. Hence, it increases heat transfer between the walls and the fluid. In addition, the wave ... Read More

Composite Thermal Barrier

This example shows how to set up multiple sandwiched thin layers with different thermal conductivities in two different ways. First, the composite is modeled as a 3D object. In the second approach the Thin Layer boundary condition with the thermally thick option is used to avoid ... Read More

Condensation Risk in a Wood-Frame Wall

This 2D stationary model computes heat and moisture transport in a wall composed of different hygroscopic materials. A comparison with the Glaser method is given for the temperature and relative humidity solutions. The effect of the use of a vapor barrier is also investigated. Read More

Heat Conduction with a Localized Heat Source on a Disk

This classical verification model solves the steady state temperature distribution in a plan disk heated by a localized heat source at its center. It shows and compare different ways to define a heat source localized on a small domain by representing it either as a geometrical point or a ... Read More

Radiative Heat Transfer in Finite Cylindrical Media — P1 Method

These models use the Discrete Ordinates method (DOM) and P1 approximation to solve a 3D radiative transfer problem in an emitting, absorbing, and linear-anisotropic scattering finite cylindrical medium. Using the S6 quadrature of DOM leads to accurate results, which are needed in ... Read More

Turbulent Flow Through a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger Cross Section

This model studies a part of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger where hot water enters from above. The cooling medium flows through the tubes that, in this model, impose a constant temperature at the walls. Furthermore, the tubes are assumed to be made of stainless steel and the heat flux ... Read More

Rapid Thermal Annealing

In the semiconductor industry, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is a semiconductor process step used for the activation of dopants and the interfacial reaction of metal contacts. In principle, the operation involves rapid heating of a wafer from ambient to approximately 1000–1500 K. As soon ... Read More